Всі дії в англійській мові діляться на факти і тривалість. Факти – це подія, закінчення якого нам відомо. Ми доробили уроки, вивчили вірш, приготували вечерю.
Тривалість – це процес події, поетапний хід дій. Закінчення нам невідомо – уроки робили (але могли щось пропустити), а вірш – вчили (але не вивчили). Дії другого типу – все тимчасові форми з приставкою Continuous.
Щоб краще закріпити це правило, початківцям потрібно регулярно робити вправи на Past Continuous в порівнянні з Past Simple. Це найяскравіший приклад взаємодії фактів і тривалості в одному реченні.
Правила Past Continuous
Past Continuous – це:
- Тривала дія (Приклад: The girl was walking to school. – Дівчинка йшла в школу. Ми не знаємо, чи дійшла вона. У нас є процес – її похід. Це і є Past Continuous).
- Дія в конкретний момент або період часу (The girl was walking to school at 2.45 pm. / The girl was walking to school from 2.00 pm to 3 pm – Дівчинка йшла в школу В45 дня. / Дівчинка йшла в школу з 2 до 3 дня) .
- Дія, яке може перериватися «точним» часом в Past Simple (The girl was walking to school when the cat fell down . – Дівчинка йшла в школу, коли кіт впав).
- Past Continuous вживається для вираження тривалої дії в конкретний момент в минулому або період часу, який може бути замінений дією в Past Simple.
- Past Continuous може вживатися для підкреслення одночасних дій в минулому.
Таблиця з прикладами:
|Спочатку дія 1, коли (when) дію 2||Дія 1, в той час (while) як дію 2|
|I was doing my homework, when the snowstorm began. – Я робив уроки, коли почався сніговий шторм.||I was doing the housework while my husband was cooking the dinner . – Я робила хатню роботу, в той час як мій чоловік готував вечерю.|
|Mary was baking a cake, when the telephone rang. – Мері пекла пиріг, коли задзвонив телефон.||Sam was studying English while Joseph was listening to music . – Сем вчив англійську, в той час як Джозеф слухав музику.|
|Bred was sleeping in a bed, when mom came in. – Бред спав в ліжку, коли мама зайшла.||Dan was fishing in the park while Mark was working hard . – Ден ловив рибу в парку, в той час як Марк важко працював.|
|Tom was fixing a car, when the dog barked. – Том лагодив машину, коли собака загавкав.||Helen was singing while her grandma was trying to sleep . – Хелен співала, в той час як її бабуся намагалася заснути.|
|Parents were typing a letter, when the light has gone. – Батьки друкували лист, коли зникло світло||Babies were crying while the baby-sitter was running. – Малюки плакали, в той час як няня бігала.|
|Cousins were reading a book, when the vase fell down. – Кузени читали книжку, коли ваза впала.||The girls were riding while the audience was applauding . – Дівчата їхали, в той час як аудиторія аплодувала.|
Як складати пропозиції:
- Питання. What were you doing when the car disappeared? – Що ви робили, коли машина пропала?
- Заперечення. I was not eating at the park! – Я не їв в парку!
- Затвердження. We were making some toasts when the postman came . – Ми робили тости, коли прийшов листоноша.
Вправи на Past Continuous
Для відпрацювання і закріплення теми є 12 основних типів вправ, які спрямовані на переклад, створення позитивної, негативної і питальній форми в Past Continuous, на розмовну лексику і розуміння сенсу тексту.
Поставте дієслово з дужок в потрібну форму Past Continuous:
- Ellie talked to the boss. She said that she 1) (write) an article.
- James 2) (sleep) while she edited her article.
- James 3) (eat) when she successfully closed the project.
- When Elly 4) (go) home, James was no longer in the workplace.
- The boss 5) (listen) for a long time. He did not know what to do.
- James said he 6) (do) all the work for her, so he did not have time to hand over his project .
- When Lucy entered the office, the boss 7) (write) something down in his notebook.
- Lucy said that James and Ellie (work) that morning.
- When Lucy 9) (leave) for lunch, James did not sleep.
- When Lucy 10) (speak) on the phone, Ellie wrote. None of them was lazy. But the boss 11) (look for) James ‘work all day yesterday!
- The boss called Arnold. “What 12) (do) that day?” – he asked. “From 9 to 10 I 13) (draw).
- From 10 to 11 I 14) (speak) on the phone. From 11 to 12 I 15) (surf) the Internet. From 12 to 13 I 16) (eat) with Steve.
- After lunch, I fell asleep and 17) (sleep) for another 3 hours. When I woke up, I realized that I did not do anything, so I 18) (think) about what to do for another hour.
- One hour left. James and Lucy 19) (write) from 9 to 17. They wanted to write more than each other.
- When James left, I 20) (stay) in the office. I 21) (delete) all his work, while Ellie was in another office. Yesterday you (look for) James ‘work. And I managed to finish my own!
Прочитайте і переведіть текст, акцентуйте увагу на дієслова Past Continuous:
- Leo has a very unusual family.
- His mother and sister was driving to us from 18 to 8 o’clock.
- They arrived when I was cooking the breakfast.
- They arrived 6 hours earlier, and I was still cooking the dishes.
- Leo’s mother was having breakfast from 8 to 10 o’clock while Leo’s sister was drawing pictures.
- When I was washing the dishes,
- Leo’s sister painted the walls for us.
- I was cleaning the kitchen when Leo and his family went for a walk.
- From 11 to 13 I was cleaning the walls, which painted Leo’s sister.
- Then I was washing the plates after breakfast Leo’s mother.
- When Leo and his family arrived, I was still cooking! “I was cooking from 8 to 14 o’clock!” I shouted at Leo.
- While I was taking a bath, Leo was cooking.
- While I was doing makeup, Leo was cooking. While I was reading a book, Leo was cooking.
- I was sleeping from 19 to 20 o’clock.
- Leo came to me when I was getting dressed.
- “I was cooking from 14 to 20 o’clock!” Leo shouted at me.
- Leo and I were cooking while mom was reading a book.
- Leo and I was cooking while mom was taking a bath.
- Leo and I was cooking while mom was doing makeup.
- Hurry to have Christmas!
Дайте відповідь на питання Past Continuous, використовуйте спочатку коротку форму відповіді, а потім повну:
- Were you going to the theatre at 8 o’clock? Yes
- Were you having breakfast at 10 o’clock? No
- Was your friend surfing the Internet when you called him or her? Yes
- Was your wife or husband reading when you entered the room? No
- Was your dog barking when somebody knocked? Yes
- Were the oven and iron working when you left the flat? No
- Were you running after the bus when the telephone rang? Yes
- Were you writing an essay at 9 o’clock last morning? No
- Was your cousin cooking when you were tidying your room? Yes
Використовуйте слова в дужках для створення питання або відповіді, напишіть пару питання-відповідь в Past Continuous з використанням цих слів:
- When I came to school, my classmates were playing. (Chess)
- When mum was sleeping, the baby was crying. (Sadly)
- Sam was waiting for me at 5 o’clock last week. (When)
- I saw our teacher in the park. Mr. Smith was jogging. (Where)
- This winter was cold and the snow was falling. (What weather)
- Mike was looking after his baby-brother at home. (Where)
- Her friend was packing some gifts when she came. (What)
- Mum and dad were cooking dinner a week ago. (With whom)
- They were writing something when the bell rang. (What)
- We were listening to the story when the teacher entered the room. (What)
Складіть питання, використовуючи наведені слова, задайте питання своїм друзям і запишіть їх відповіді в Past Continuous:
- to catch;
- to fly;
- to paint;
- to call;
- to dive;
- to play;
- to run;
- to walk.
Вставте слово в Past Continuous, яке буде підходити за змістом:
- The detective 1) __ who the murderer was.
- He 2) __ through his notes to remember the information of each of the suspects.
- On Saturday at 19.00, Elizabeth 3) __ in the park.
- When she 4) __ to the house, she heard a shot.
- Lily 5) __ the piano at 19.05.
- When she 6) __ Chopin, she heard a shot. In 19.07, James 7) __ a picture.
- When he __ the girl’s eye, he heard a shot.
- Mary 9) __ paints for James in London and 10) __ on the bus at 6.45 pm.
- She 11) __ by bus from 18.45 to 20.00.
- Butler 12) __the bush in 19.01.
- When he 13) __ the last leave, he heard a shot.
- Elizabeth 14) __ through the park, but did not see the butler.
- The butler 15) __ the bush, but did not see Elizabeth walking.
- Lily 16) __ in the big hall.
- She said that James 17) __ when was the sound of the shot.
- The detective 18) __ when Hercule Poirot entered the room.
Поставте в правильному порядку слова в Past Continuous:
- cutting bush the Who was? The butler.
- Mary doing was What? Sitting in a bus.
- were and Where drawing Lily playing and James? In a big hall.
- walking Elisabeth park When butler were the and at the? At 19.00-19.01.
- London Mary Why was in buying paints? We do not know.
- girl drawing was James the How? The butler.
Вставте дієслова за змістом в Past Continuous:
- The detective __ James yesterday from 2 to 7 pm.
- “__ he the car when I called?” – detective asked.
- Lily said that James __ to the mountains.
- “__ he to the market when I called?” – detective asked.
- Elizabeth said that James __ to the grocery store.
- When the detective arrived at the house, James __ in the bed.
- “__ in the bed he when I called?” – detective asked.
- Mary said that James __ in the bed when the detective called.
- When the doctor came, James __ in the bed.
- The doctor __ to wake James up when the phone rang.
У дужках наведені питальні слова, використовуйте їх і задайте питання до пропозиції в Past Continuous:
- The doctor was healing James from 10.00 to 14.00 o’clock. (whom)
- He said that someone poisoned him when James was eating and drawing yesterday from 10 am to 8 pm. (what)
- James did not remember what he was eating and drinking yesterday from 10.00 to 14.00 o’clock. (when)
- Lily and Elizabeth was reading the book from 11.00 to 14.00 o’clock. (who)
- Mary was mixing paints James from 10.00 to 12.00 o’clock. (what)
- The butler was cooking food from 10.00 to 14.00 o’clock. (why)
Представлені позитивні пропозиції потрібно перефразувати в заперечення в Past Continuous:
- I was looking for a house.
- You were buying a pet-mouse.
- We were drinking the green tea.
- They were swimming in the sea.
- He was playing with a cat.
- She was wearing a hat.
- It was barking in a flat.
Представлені позитивні пропозиції перефразируйте в питання в Past Continuous:
- I was jumping in a park.
- You were getting some good marks.
- We were laughing all the way.
- They were sleeping the whole day.
- He was buying a gift to wife.
- She was cooking with a knife.
- It was playing in the yard.
Переведіть на англійську мову в Past Continuous:
- Детектив думав вчора з 15.00 до 19.00.
- “Лілі, ти читала книгу в той день?”
- “Так, Елізабет і я читали книгу в той день”.
- “Ви бачили Мері, коли ви читали?”.
- “Ні, ми не бачили Мері, коли ми читали”.
- “Дворецький, ви готували в той день?”.
- “Так, я готував в той день”.
- “Ви бачили Мері, коли ви готували?”.
- “Ні, я не бачив Мері, коли я готував”.
- Детектив назвав Мері вбивцею, поки Джеймс спав.
Відповіді на вправи Past Continuous
1. was writing;
2. was sleeping;
3. was eating;
4. was going;
5. was listening;
6. was doing;
7. was writing;
8. were working;
9. was leaving;
10. was speaking;
11. was looking for;
12. were you doing;
13. was drawing;
14. was speaking;
15. was surfing;
16. was eating;
17. was sleeping;
18. was thinking;
19. were writing;
20. was staying;
21. was deleting;
22. were looking for.
1. У Лео була дуже незвичайна сім’я.
2. Його мама і сестра їхали до нас з 18.00 до 8.00.
3. Вони приїхали, коли я готувала сніданок.
4. Вони приїхали на 6 годин раніше, і я ще готувала страви.
5. Мама Лео снідала з 8 до 10, поки сестра Лео малювала картинки.
6. Коли я мила посуд, сестра Лео розмалювала нам стіни.
7. Я забиралася в кухні, коли Лео з сім’єю поїхали гуляти.
8. З 11 до 13 я витирала стіни, які розмалювала сестра Лео.
9. Потім я мила тарілки після сніданку мами Лео.
10. Коли Лео з сім’єю приїхали, я все ще готувала!
11. «Я готую з 8 до 14!» – я кричала на Лео.
12. Поки я приймала ванну, Лео готував.
13. Поки я робила макіяж, Лео готував.
14. Поки я читала книгу, Лео готував.
15. Я спала з 19.00 до 20.00.
16. Лео прийшов до мене, коли я одягалася.
17. «Я готую з 14 до до 20!» – кричав Лео на мене.
18. Я і Лео готували, поки мама читала книгу.
19. Я і Лео готували, поки мама приймала ванну.
20. Я і Лео готували, поки мама робила макіяж.
21. Скоріше б уже Різдво!
1. Yes, I was. Yes, I was going to the theatre at 8 o’clock.
2. No, I was not. I was not having breakfast at 10 o’clock.
3. Yes, he / she was. He / she was surfing the Internet when I called him or her.
4. No, she / he was not. She / he was not reading when I entered the room.
5. Yes, it was. It was barking when somebody knocked.
6. No, they were not. The oven and iron were not working when I left the flat.
7. Yes, I was. I was running after the bus when the telephone rang?
8. No, I was not. I was not writing an essay at 9 o’clock last morning.
9. Yes, he / she was. My cousin was cooking when I was tidying my room.
1. What game my classmates were playing? – Chess.
2. How was the baby crying? – Sadly.
3. When was Sam waiting for me? – At 5 o’clock last week.
4. Where was Mr. Smith jogging? – In the park.
5. What weather was this winter? – Cold and the snow was falling.
6. Where was Mike looking after his baby-brother? At home.
7. What was her friend packing when she came? Some gifts.
8. With whom was mum cooking dinner a week ago? With dad.
9. What happened when they were writing? The bell rang.
10. What were we listening to when the teacher entered the room? The story.
|Were you catching a ball last Saturday at 10 o’clock?||Yes, I was.||No, I was not.||Yes, I was catching a ball last Saturday at 10 o’clock.||Yes, my friends and I were catching a ball.|
|Were you flying in a plane last Saturday at 10 o’clock?||No, I was not.||Yes, I was! I came back home.||No, I was not flying in a plane last Saturday at 10 o’clock.||No, but my wife was.|
|Were you painting walls in the bedroom last Saturday at 10 o’clock?||No, I was not.||Yes, I was an hour later! At 11 o’clock I mean. I got back my home and found out that my cut chewed up the wallpaper .||No, I was not painting walls in the bedroom last Saturday at 10 o’clock.||Nearly. I was painting walls an hour before.|
|Were you calling your daughter last Saturday at 10 o’clock?||Yes, I was! She was at gym with me.||No, I was not.||No, I was not calling my daughter last Saturday at 10 o’clock.||No, I do not have a daughter.|
|Were you diving in Sidney last Saturday at 10 o’clock?||No, I was not.||Yes, I was diving that day.||No, I was not diving in Sydney last Saturday at 10 o’clock.||No, I’ve never been to Sydney.|
|Were you playing basketball last Saturday at 10 o’clock?||Yes, I was.||No, I was not.||Yes, I was playing basketball last Saturday at 10 o’clock.||Yes, I was!|
|Were you running away from the dog last Saturday at 10 o’clock?||No, I was not.||No, I was not.||No, I was not running away from the dog last Saturday at 10 o’clock.||Unfortunately yes, I was. It’s happened after training.|
|Were you walking down the street last Saturday at 10 o’clock?||No, I was not.||Yes, I was.||Yes, I was walking down the street last Saturday at 10 o’clock.||Yes, I was.|
1. was thinking;
2. was looking;
3. was walking;
4. was coming;
5. was playing;
6. was playing;
7. was drawing;
8. was drawing;
9. was buying;
10. was sitting;
11. was going;
12. was cutting;
13. was cutting;
14. was walking;
15. was cutting;
16. was playing;
17. was not drawing;
18, was sleeping.
1. Who was cutting the bush?
2. What was Mary doing?
3. Where were Lily and James playing and drawing?
4. When were the butler and Elisabeth walking at the park?
5. Why was Mary buying paints in London?
6. How were James drawing the girl?
1. was calling;
2. Was he driving;
3. was driving;
4. Was he going;
5. was going;
6. was sleeping;
7. Was he sleeping;
8. was sleeping;
9. was sleeping;
1. Why was the butler cooking food from 10.00 to 14.00 o’clock?
2. What was Mary mixing from 10.00 to 12.00 o’clock?
3. Who was reading the book from 11.00 to 14.00 o’clock?
4. Whom was the doctor healing from 10.00 to 14.00 o’clock?
5. What was James doing when someone poisoned him?
6. When James was eating and drinking?
1. I was not looking for a house.
2. You were not buying a pet-mouse.
3. We were not drinking the green tea.
4. They were not swimming in the sea.
5. He was not playing with a cat.
6. She was not wearing a hat.
7. It was not barking in a flat.
1. Was I jumping in a park?
2. Were you getting some good marks?
3. Were we laughing all the way?
4. Were they sleeping the whole day?
5. Was he buying a gift to wife?
6. Was she cooking with a knife?
7. Was it playing in the yard?
1. Detective was thinking yesterday from 15.00 to 19.00.
2. “Lily, were you reading the book that day?”
3. “Yes, Elizabeth and I were reading a book that day.”
4. “Were you looking at Mary when you read?”
5. “No, we were not looking at Mary when we read.”
6. “Butler, were you cooking that day?”.
7. “Yes, I was cooking that day.”
8. “Were you looking at Mary when you cooked?”
9. “No, I was not looking at Mary when I cooked.”
10. A detective called Mary a murderer while James was sleeping.
Вправа на порівняння Past Simple і Past Continuous
- Mary kept silent and hung her head down.
- Mary was crying while the detective was speaking.
- James was sleeping while the detective was speaking.
- When James found out that Mary was a murderer, he did not believe anyone.
- “Was not Mary going by bus at that time?” He asked.
- The detective explained that Mary was not going by bus from 18.45 to 20.00.
- Mary was going by bus from 6 pm to 7 pm
- None of the buses was going at 6.45 pm
- Mary arrived at the house at 19.05.
- Elizabeth and Lily were crying.
1. Мері промовчала і опустила голову вниз.
2. Мері плакала, поки детектив говорив.
3. Джеймс спав, поки детектив говорив.
4. Коли Джеймс дізнався, що Мері вбивця, він не повірив нікому.
5. «Хіба Мері не їхала в цей час в автобусі?», – запитав він.
6. Детектив пояснив, що Мері не їхала на автобусі з 18.45 до 20.00.
7. Мері їхала з 18.00 до 19.00.
8. Жоден автобус не виїжджав о 18.45.
9. Мері приїхала в будинок о 19.05.
10. Елізабет і Лілі плакали.
Вправа на Past Continuous Passive
Переведіть з активного застави в Passive Voice:
- Lucy and Jack were tidying a room.
- Mark was not cooking the dinner.
- The birds were feeding the chicks.
- Students were watching the Harry Potter.
- Who was looking for the pen?
- Why were brothers giving the presents?
- Were mum and dad cleaning the floor when the baby shouted?
1. A room was being tidied by Lucy and Jack.
2. The dinner was not being cooked by Mark.
3. The chicks were being fed by the birds.
4. The Harry Potter was being watched by the students.
5. By whom was the pen being looking for?
6. Why were the presents being given by brothers?
7. Was the floor being cleaned by mum and dad when the baby shouted?
Past Continuous Tense (минуле продовжене) служить для опису дії в минулому. Нас не цікавить кінець або підсумок події – тільки процес досягнення.
Щоб максимально ефективно закріпити тему вивченого граматичного матеріалу і правильно вживати в мові необхідно робити тренувальні вправи онлайн. Переводите на англійську і назад, ставте слова в правильному порядку і розкривайте дужки – все це допоможе зрозуміти різницю вживання Past Simple і Past Continuous.